Why is my dilution refrigerator not getting to base temperature?

As dilution refrigerator (DR) designs enable temperatures that edge ever closer to absolute zero, the ability to accurately achieve and measure base temperatures becomes an increasing challenge.

The lock-in amplifier explained and reimagined

Measurement of electrical signals, voltage, and current is one of the most important methods used by researchers to characterize electronic materials. But electrical signals are often at very low [...]

Read our 'Low-Level Measurements of Nanostructures' tech note

The study of new semiconducting materials, high temperature superconductors, photovoltaic devices, and organic electronic materials typically requires low-level sourcing and measurement because [...]

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